Cassandra Documentation

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sstableloader

Bulk-load the sstables found in the directory <dir_path> to the configured cluster. The parent directories of <dir_path> are used as the target keyspace/table name. For example, to load an sstable named ma-1-big-Data.db into keyspace1/standard1, you will need to have the files ma-1-big-Data.db and ma-1-big-Index.db in a directory /path/to/keyspace1/standard1/. The tool will create new sstables, and does not clean up your copied files.

Several of the options listed below don’t work quite as intended, and in those cases, workarounds are mentioned for specific use cases.

To avoid having the sstable files to be loaded compacted while reading them, place the files in an alternate keyspace/table path than the data directory.

Cassandra must be stopped before this tool is executed, or unexpected results will occur. Note: the script does not verify that Cassandra is stopped.

Usage

sstableloader <options> <dir_path>

-d, --nodes <initial hosts>

Required. Try to connect to these hosts (comma-separated) initially for ring information

-u, --username <username>

username for Cassandra authentication

-pw, --password <password>

password for Cassandra authentication

-p, --port <native transport port>

port used for native connection (default 9042)

-sp, --storage-port <storage port>

port used for internode communication (default 7000)

-ssp, --ssl-storage-port <ssl storage port>

port used for TLS internode communication (default 7001)

--no-progress

don’t display progress

-t, --throttle <throttle>

throttle speed in Mbits (default unlimited)

-idct, --inter-dc-throttle <inter-dc-throttle>

inter-datacenter throttle speed in Mbits (default unlimited)

-cph, --connections-per-host <connectionsPerHost>

number of concurrent connections-per-host

-i, --ignore <NODES>

don’t stream to this (comma separated) list of nodes

-alg, --ssl-alg <ALGORITHM>

Client SSL: algorithm (default: SunX509)

-ciphers, --ssl-ciphers <CIPHER-SUITES>

Client SSL: comma-separated list of encryption suites to use

-ks, --keystore <KEYSTORE>

Client SSL: full path to keystore

-kspw, --keystore-password <KEYSTORE-PASSWORD>

Client SSL: password of the keystore

-st, --store-type <STORE-TYPE>

Client SSL: type of store

-ts, --truststore <TRUSTSTORE>

Client SSL: full path to truststore

-tspw, --truststore-password <TRUSTSTORE-PASSWORD>

Client SSL: password of the truststore

-prtcl, --ssl-protocol <PROTOCOL>

Client SSL: connections protocol to use (default: TLS)

-ap, --auth-provider <auth provider>

custom AuthProvider class name for cassandra authentication

-f, --conf-path <path to config file>

cassandra.yaml file path for streaming throughput and client/server SSL

-v, --verbose

verbose output

-h, --help

display this help message

You can provide a cassandra.yaml file with the -f command line option to set up streaming throughput, and client and server encryption options. Only stream_throughput_outbound, server_encryption_options, and client_encryption_options are read from yaml. You can override options read from cassandra.yaml with corresponding command line options.

Load sstables from a Snapshot

Copy the snapshot sstables into an accessible directory and use sstableloader to restore them.

Example:

cp snapshots/1535397029191/* /path/to/keyspace1/standard1/

sstableloader --nodes 172.17.0.2 /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/
Established connection to initial hosts
Opening sstables and calculating sections to stream
Streaming relevant part of /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/ma-3-big-Data.db to [/172.17.0.2]
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:1/1 100% total: 100% 0  MB/s(avg: 1 MB/s)
Summary statistics:
   Connections per host:         : 1
   Total files transferred:      : 1
   Total bytes transferred:      : 4700000
   Total duration (ms):          : 4390
   Average transfer rate (MB/s): : 1
   Peak transfer rate (MB/s):    : 1

The -d or --nodes option is required, or the script will not run.

Example:

sstableloader /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/
Initial hosts must be specified (-d)

Use a Config File for SSL Clusters

If SSL encryption is enabled in the cluster, use the --conf-path option with sstableloader to point the tool to the cassandra.yaml with the relevant server_encryption_options (e.g., truststore location, algorithm). This will work better than passing individual ssl options shown above to sstableloader on the command line.

Example:

sstableloader --nodes 172.17.0.2 --conf-path /etc/cassandra/cassandra.yaml /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-0974e5a0aa5811e8a0a06d2c86545d91/snapshots/
Established connection to initial hosts
Opening sstables and calculating sections to stream
Streaming relevant part of /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-0974e5a0aa5811e8a0a06d2c86545d91/mc-1-big-Data.db  to [/172.17.0.2]
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 1  % total: 1% 9.165KiB/s (avg: 9.165KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 2  % total: 2% 5.147MiB/s (avg: 18.299KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 4  % total: 4% 9.751MiB/s (avg: 27.423KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 5  % total: 5% 8.203MiB/s (avg: 36.524KiB/s)
...
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:1/1 100% total: 100% 0.000KiB/s (avg: 480.513KiB/s)

Summary statistics:
   Connections per host    : 1
   Total files transferred : 1
   Total bytes transferred : 4.387MiB
   Total duration          : 9356 ms
   Average transfer rate   : 480.105KiB/s
   Peak transfer rate      : 586.410KiB/s

Hide Progress Output

To hide the output of progress and the summary statistics (e.g., if you wanted to use this tool in a script), use the --no-progress option.

Example:

sstableloader --nodes 172.17.0.2 --no-progress /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/
Established connection to initial hosts
Opening sstables and calculating sections to stream
Streaming relevant part of /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/ma-4-big-Data.db to [/172.17.0.2]

Get More Detail

Using the --verbose option will provide much more progress output.

Example:

sstableloader --nodes 172.17.0.2 --verbose /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-0974e5a0aa5811e8a0a06d2c86545d91/
Established connection to initial hosts
Opening sstables and calculating sections to stream
Streaming relevant part of /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-0974e5a0aa5811e8a0a06d2c86545d91/mc-1-big-Data.db  to [/172.17.0.2]
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 1  % total: 1% 12.056KiB/s (avg: 12.056KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 2  % total: 2% 9.092MiB/s (avg: 24.081KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 4  % total: 4% 18.832MiB/s (avg: 36.099KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 5  % total: 5% 2.253MiB/s (avg: 47.882KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 7  % total: 7% 6.388MiB/s (avg: 59.743KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 8  % total: 8% 14.606MiB/s (avg: 71.635KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 9  % total: 9% 8.880MiB/s (avg: 83.465KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 11 % total: 11% 5.217MiB/s (avg: 95.176KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 12 % total: 12% 12.563MiB/s (avg: 106.975KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 14 % total: 14% 2.550MiB/s (avg: 118.322KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 15 % total: 15% 16.638MiB/s (avg: 130.063KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 17 % total: 17% 17.270MiB/s (avg: 141.793KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 18 % total: 18% 11.280MiB/s (avg: 153.452KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 19 % total: 19% 2.903MiB/s (avg: 164.603KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 21 % total: 21% 6.744MiB/s (avg: 176.061KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 22 % total: 22% 6.011MiB/s (avg: 187.440KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 24 % total: 24% 9.690MiB/s (avg: 198.920KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 25 % total: 25% 11.481MiB/s (avg: 210.412KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 27 % total: 27% 9.957MiB/s (avg: 221.848KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 28 % total: 28% 10.270MiB/s (avg: 233.265KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 29 % total: 29% 7.812MiB/s (avg: 244.571KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 31 % total: 31% 14.843MiB/s (avg: 256.021KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 32 % total: 32% 11.457MiB/s (avg: 267.394KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 34 % total: 34% 6.550MiB/s (avg: 278.536KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 35 % total: 35% 9.115MiB/s (avg: 289.782KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 37 % total: 37% 11.054MiB/s (avg: 301.064KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 38 % total: 38% 10.449MiB/s (avg: 312.307KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 39 % total: 39% 1.646MiB/s (avg: 321.665KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 41 % total: 41% 13.300MiB/s (avg: 332.872KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 42 % total: 42% 14.370MiB/s (avg: 344.082KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 44 % total: 44% 16.734MiB/s (avg: 355.314KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 45 % total: 45% 22.245MiB/s (avg: 366.592KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 47 % total: 47% 25.561MiB/s (avg: 377.882KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 48 % total: 48% 24.543MiB/s (avg: 389.155KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 49 % total: 49% 4.894MiB/s (avg: 399.688KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 51 % total: 51% 8.331MiB/s (avg: 410.559KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 52 % total: 52% 5.771MiB/s (avg: 421.150KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 54 % total: 54% 8.738MiB/s (avg: 431.983KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 55 % total: 55% 3.406MiB/s (avg: 441.911KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 56 % total: 56% 9.791MiB/s (avg: 452.730KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 58 % total: 58% 3.401MiB/s (avg: 462.545KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 59 % total: 59% 5.280MiB/s (avg: 472.840KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 61 % total: 61% 12.232MiB/s (avg: 483.663KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 62 % total: 62% 9.258MiB/s (avg: 494.325KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 64 % total: 64% 2.877MiB/s (avg: 503.640KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 65 % total: 65% 7.461MiB/s (avg: 514.078KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 66 % total: 66% 24.247MiB/s (avg: 525.018KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 68 % total: 68% 9.348MiB/s (avg: 535.563KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 69 % total: 69% 5.130MiB/s (avg: 545.563KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 71 % total: 71% 19.861MiB/s (avg: 556.392KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 72 % total: 72% 15.501MiB/s (avg: 567.122KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 74 % total: 74% 5.031MiB/s (avg: 576.996KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 75 % total: 75% 22.771MiB/s (avg: 587.813KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 76 % total: 76% 22.780MiB/s (avg: 598.619KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 78 % total: 78% 20.684MiB/s (avg: 609.386KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 79 % total: 79% 22.920MiB/s (avg: 620.173KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 81 % total: 81% 7.458MiB/s (avg: 630.333KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 82 % total: 82% 22.993MiB/s (avg: 641.090KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 84 % total: 84% 21.392MiB/s (avg: 651.814KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 85 % total: 85% 7.732MiB/s (avg: 661.938KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 86 % total: 86% 3.476MiB/s (avg: 670.892KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 88 % total: 88% 19.889MiB/s (avg: 681.521KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 89 % total: 89% 21.077MiB/s (avg: 692.162KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 91 % total: 91% 24.062MiB/s (avg: 702.835KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 92 % total: 92% 19.798MiB/s (avg: 713.431KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 94 % total: 94% 17.591MiB/s (avg: 723.965KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 95 % total: 95% 13.725MiB/s (avg: 734.361KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 96 % total: 96% 16.737MiB/s (avg: 744.846KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 98 % total: 98% 22.701MiB/s (avg: 755.443KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:0/1 99 % total: 99% 18.718MiB/s (avg: 765.954KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:1/1 100% total: 100% 6.613MiB/s (avg: 767.802KiB/s)
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:1/1 100% total: 100% 0.000KiB/s (avg: 670.295KiB/s)

Summary statistics:
   Connections per host    : 1
   Total files transferred : 1
   Total bytes transferred : 4.387MiB
   Total duration          : 6706 ms
   Average transfer rate   : 669.835KiB/s
   Peak transfer rate      : 767.802KiB/s

Throttling Load

To prevent the table loader from overloading the system resources, you can throttle the process with the --throttle option. The default is unlimited (no throttling). Throttle units are in megabits. Note that the total duration is increased in the example below.

Example:

sstableloader --nodes 172.17.0.2 --throttle 1 /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/
Established connection to initial hosts
Opening sstables and calculating sections to stream
Streaming relevant part of /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/ma-6-big-Data.db to [/172.17.0.2]
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:1/1 100% total: 100% 0  MB/s(avg: 0 MB/s)
Summary statistics:
   Connections per host:         : 1
   Total files transferred:      : 1
   Total bytes transferred:      : 4595705
   Total duration (ms):          : 37634
   Average transfer rate (MB/s): : 0
   Peak transfer rate (MB/s):    : 0

Speeding up Load

To speed up the load process, the number of connections per host can be increased.

Example:

sstableloader --nodes 172.17.0.2 --connections-per-host 100 /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/
Established connection to initial hosts
Opening sstables and calculating sections to stream
Streaming relevant part of /var/lib/cassandra/loadme/keyspace1/standard1-f8a4fa30aa2a11e8af27091830ac5256/ma-9-big-Data.db to [/172.17.0.2]
progress: [/172.17.0.2]0:1/1 100% total: 100% 0  MB/s(avg: 1 MB/s)
Summary statistics:
   Connections per host:         : 100
   Total files transferred:      : 1
   Total bytes transferred:      : 4595705
   Total duration (ms):          : 3486
   Average transfer rate (MB/s): : 1
   Peak transfer rate (MB/s):    : 1

This small data set doesn’t benefit much from the increase in connections per host, but note that the total duration has decreased in this example.