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Time Window CompactionStrategy

TimeWindowCompactionStrategy (TWCS) is designed specifically for workloads where it’s beneficial to have data on disk grouped by the timestamp of the data, a common goal when the workload is time-series in nature or when all data is written with a TTL. In an expiring/TTL workload, the contents of an entire SSTable likely expire at approximately the same time, allowing them to be dropped completely, and space reclaimed much more reliably than when using SizeTieredCompactionStrategy or LeveledCompactionStrategy. The basic concept is that TimeWindowCompactionStrategy will create one sstable per file for a given window, where a window is simply calculated as the combination of two primary options:

compaction_window_unit (default: DAYS)

A Java TimeUnit (MINUTES, HOURS, or DAYS).

compaction_window_size (default: 1)

The number of units that make up a window.

unsafe_aggressive_sstable_expiration (default: false)

Expired sstables will be dropped without checking its data is shadowing other sstables. This is a potentially risky option that can lead to data loss or deleted data re-appearing, going beyond what unchecked_tombstone_compaction does for single sstable compaction. Due to the risk the jvm must also be started with -Dcassandra.unsafe_aggressive_sstable_expiration=true.

Taken together, the operator can specify windows of virtually any size, and TimeWindowCompactionStrategy will work to create a single sstable for writes within that window. For efficiency during writing, the newest window will be compacted using SizeTieredCompactionStrategy.

Ideally, operators should select a compaction_window_unit and compaction_window_size pair that produces approximately 20-30 windows - if writing with a 90 day TTL, for example, a 3 Day window would be a reasonable choice ('compaction_window_unit':'DAYS','compaction_window_size':3).

TimeWindowCompactionStrategy Operational Concerns

The primary motivation for TWCS is to separate data on disk by timestamp and to allow fully expired SSTables to drop more efficiently. One potential way this optimal behavior can be subverted is if data is written to SSTables out of order, with new data and old data in the same SSTable. Out of order data can appear in two ways:

  • If the user mixes old data and new data in the traditional write path, the data will be comingled in the memtables and flushed into the same SSTable, where it will remain comingled.

  • If the user’s read requests for old data cause read repairs that pull old data into the current memtable, that data will be comingled and flushed into the same SSTable.

While TWCS tries to minimize the impact of comingled data, users should attempt to avoid this behavior. Specifically, users should avoid queries that explicitly set the timestamp via CQL USING TIMESTAMP. Additionally, users should run frequent repairs (which streams data in such a way that it does not become comingled).

Changing TimeWindowCompactionStrategy Options

Operators wishing to enable TimeWindowCompactionStrategy on existing data should consider running a major compaction first, placing all existing data into a single (old) window. Subsequent newer writes will then create typical SSTables as expected.

Operators wishing to change compaction_window_unit or compaction_window_size can do so, but may trigger additional compactions as adjacent windows are joined together. If the window size is decrease d (for example, from 24 hours to 12 hours), then the existing SSTables will not be modified - TWCS can not split existing SSTables into multiple windows.